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PSYCHOTIC BEHAVIOR.........DEFINED..... | Starlight Journal

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PSYCHOTIC BEHAVIOR.........DEFINED.....

ICD-9OMIMMedlinePlus
Psychosis
Classification and external resources
290-299603342 608923 603175 192430001553MeSHF03.700.675

Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality". People suffering from it are said to be psychotic.

People experiencing psychosis may report hallucinations or delusional beliefs, and may exhibit personality changes and disorganized thinking. This may be accompanied by unusual or bizarre behaviour, as well as difficulty with social interaction and impairment in carrying out the activities of daily living.

A wide variety of central nervous system diseases, from both external toxins, and from internal physiologic illness, can produce symptoms of psychosis. This has led to the metaphor of psychosis as the 'fever' of CNS illness—a serious but nonspecific indicator.[1][2]

However, many people have unusual and distinct (unshared) experiences of different realities at some point in their lives, without being impaired or even distressed by these experiences. For example, many people have experienced visions of some kind, and some have even found inspiration or religious revelation in them.[3] As a result, it has been argued that psychosis is not fundamentally separate from normal consciousness, but rather, is on a continuum with normal consciousness.[4] In this view, people who are clinically found to be psychotic may simply be having particularly intense or distressing experiences (see schizotypy).

In contemporary culture, the term "psychotic" is often incorrectly used interchangeably with "psychopathic."

Contents

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[edit] Signs and symptoms

People with psychosis may have one or more of the following:

[edit] Hallucinations

Hallucinations are defined as sensory perception in the absence of external stimuli. They are different from illusions, or perceptual distortions, which are the misperception of external stimuli.[5] Hallucinations may occur in any of the five senses and take on almost any form, which may include simple sensations (such as lights, colors, tastes, and smells) to more meaningful experiences such as seeing and interacting with fully formed animals and people, hearing voices and complex tactile sensations.

Auditory hallucinations, particularly the experience of hearing voices, are a common and often prominent feature of psychosis. Hallucinated voices may talk about, or to the person, and may involve several speakers with distinct personas. Auditory hallucinations tend to be particularly distressing when they are derogatory, commanding or preoccupying. However, the experience of hearing voices need not always be a negative one. Research has shown that the majority of people who hear voices are not in need of psychiatric help.[6] The Hearing Voices Movement has subsequently been created to support voice hearers, regardless of whether they are considered to have a mental illness or not.

[edit] Delusions

Psychosis may involve delusional beliefs, some of which are paranoid in nature. Karl Jaspers classified psychotic delusions into primary and secondary types. Primary delusions are defined as arising suddenly and not being comprehensible in terms of normal mental processes, whereas secondary delusions may be understood as being influenced by the person's background or current situation (e.g., ethnic or sexual orientation, religious beliefs, superstitious belief).[7]

[edit] Thought disorder

Formal thought disorder describes an underlying disturbance to conscious thought and is classified largely by its effects on speech and writing. Affected persons may show pressure of speech (speaking incessantly and quickly), derailment or flight of ideas (switching topic mid-sentence or inappropriately), thought blocking, and rhyming or punning.

[edit] Lack of insight

One important and puzzling feature of psychosis is usually an accompanying lack of insight into the unusual, strange, or bizarre nature of the person's experience or behaviour.[8] Even in the case of an acute psychosis, people may be completely unaware that their vivid hallucinations and delusions are in any way "unrealistic". This is not an absolute, however; insight can vary between individuals and throughout the duration of the psychotic episode.

It was previously believed that lack of insight was related to general cognitive dysfunction[9] or to avoidant coping style.[10] Later studies have found no statistical relationship between insight and cognitive function, either in groups of people who only have schizophrenia,[11] or in groups of psychotic people from various diagnostic categories.[12]

[edit] Classification

In medical practice today, a descriptive approach to psychosis (and to all mental illness) is used, based on behavioral and clinical observations. This approach is adopted in the standard guide to psychiatric diagnoses employed in the United States, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Since the DSM provides a widely-used standard of reference, the description presented here will largely reflect that point of view.

According to the DSM-IV-TR, the term psychosis has had many definitions in the past, both broad and narrow. The broadest was not being able to meet the demands of everyday life. The narrowest was delusions or hallucinations without insight. A middle ground may be delusions, hallucinations with or without insight, as well as disorganized behavior or speech. Thus, psychosis can be a symptom of mental illness, but it is not a mental illness in its own right. For example, people with schizophrenia often experience psychosis, but so can people with bipolar disorder (manic depression), unipolar depression, delirium, or drug withdrawal.[13][1] People diagnosed with these conditions can also have long periods without psychosis, and some may never experience them again. Conversely, psychosis can occur in people who do not have chronic mental illness (e.g. due to an adverse drug reaction or extreme stress).[14]

Psychosis should be distinguished from:

  • insanity, which is a legal term denoting that a person is not criminally responsible for his or her actions.[15]
  • psychopathy, a general term for a range of personality disorders characterized by lack of empathy, socially manipulative behavior, and occasionally criminality or violence.[16] Despite both being abbreviated to the slang word "psycho", psychosis bears little similarity to the core features of psychopathy, particularly with regard to violence, which rarely occurs in psychosis,[17][18] and distorted perception of reality, which rarely occurs in psychopathy.[19]
  • delirium: a psychotic individual may be able to perform actions that require a high level of intellectual effort in clear consciousness, whereas a delirious individual will have impaired memory and cognitive function.

The DSM-IV-TR lists 9 formal psychotic disorders, but many other disorders may have psychotic symptoms. The formal psychotic disorders are:

  1. Schizophrenia
  2. Schizoaffective disorder
  3. Schizophreniform disorder
  4. Brief psychotic disorder
  5. Delusional
  6. Shared psychotic disorder (Folie à deux)
  7. Substance induced psychosis
  8. Psychosis due to a general medical condition
  9. Psychosis - Not otherwise specified

[edit] Causes

Causes of symptoms of mental illness were customarily classified as "organic" or "functional". Organic conditions were primarily medical or pathophysiological, whereas, functional conditions are primarily psychiatric or psychological. The DSM-IV-TR no longer classifies psychotic disorders as functional or organic. Rather it lists traditional psychotic illnesses, psychosis due to General Medical conditions, and Substance induced psychosis.

[edit] Psychiatric

Functional causes of psychosis include the following:

A psychotic episode can be significantly affected by mood. For example, people experiencing a psychotic episode in the context of depression may experience persecutory or self-blaming delusions or hallucinations, while people experiencing a psychotic episode in the context of mania may form grandiose delusions.

Stress is known to contribute to and trigger psychotic states. A history of psychologically traumatic events, and the recent experience of a stressful event, can both contribute to the development of psychosis. Short-lived psychosis triggered by stress is known as brief reactive psychosis, and patients may spontaneously recover normal functioning within two weeks.[14] In some rare cases, individuals may remain in a state of full-blown psychosis for many years, or perhaps have attenuated psychotic symptoms (such as low intensity hallucinations) present at most times.

Sleep deprivation has been linked to psychosis.[20][21][22] However, this is not a risk for most people, who merely experience hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, i.e. unusual sensory experiences or thoughts that appear during waking or drifting off to sleep. These are normal sleep phenomena and are not considered signs of psychosis.[23]

Vitamin B12 deficiency can also cause symptoms of mania and psychosis.[24][25]

[edit] General medical

Psychosis arising from "organic" (non-psychological) conditions is sometimes known as secondary psychosis. It can be associated with the following pathologies:

Psychosis can even be caused by apparently innocuous ailments such as flu[55][56] or mumps.[57]

[edit] Psychoactive drug use

Psychotic states may occur after ingesting a variety of substances both legal and illegal and both prescription and non prescription. Drugs whose use, abuse or withdrawal are implicated include:

Intoxication with drugs that have general depressant effects on the central nervous system (especially alcohol and barbiturates) tend not to cause psychosis during use, and can actually decrease or lessen the impact of symptoms in some people. However, withdrawal from barbiturates and alcohol can be particularly dangerous, leading to psychosis or delirium and other, potentially lethal, withdrawal effects.

Some studies indicate that cannabis use may lower the threshold for psychosis, and thus help to trigger full-blown psychosis in some people.[78] Early studies have been criticized for failing to consider other drugs (such as LSD) that the participants may have used before or during the study, as well as other factors such as pre-existing ("comorbid") mental illness. However, more recent studies with better controls have still found a small increase in risk for psychosis in cannabis users.[79]

It is not clear whether this is a causal link, and it is possible that cannabis use only increases the chance of psychosis in people already predisposed to it; or that people with developing psychosis use cannabis to provide temporary relief of their mental discomfort. The fact that cannabis use has increased over the past few decades, whereas the rate of psychosis has not, suggests that a direct causal link is unlikely for all users.[80]

[edit] Pathophysiology

Brain imaging studies of psychosis, investigating both changes in brain structure and changes in brain function of people undergoing psychotic episodes, have shown mixed results.

The first brain image of an individual with psychosis was completed as far back as 1935 using a technique called pneumoencephalography[81] (a painful and now obsolete procedure where cerebrospinal fluid is drained from around the brain and replaced with air to allow the structure of the brain to show up more clearly on an X-ray picture).

More recently, a 2003 study investigating structural changes in the brains of people with psychosis showed there was significant grey matter reduction in the cortex of people before and after they became psychotic.[82] Findings such as these have led to debate about whether psychosis is itself neurotoxic and whether potentially damaging changes to the brain are related to the length of psychotic episode. Recent research has suggested that this is not the case[83] although further investigation is still ongoing.

Functional brain scans have revealed that the areas of the brain that react to sensory perceptions are active during psychosis. For example, a PET or fMRI scan of a person who claims to be hearing voices may show activation in the auditory cortex, or parts of the brain involved in the perception and understanding of speech.[84]

On the other hand, there is not a clear enough psychological definition of belief to make a comparison between different people particularly valid. Brain imaging studies on delusions have typically relied on correlations of brain activation patterns with the presence of delusional beliefs.[85]

One clear finding is that persons with a tendency to have psychotic experiences seem to show increased activation in the right hemisphere of the brain.[86] This increased level of right hemisphere activation has also been found in healthy people who have high levels of paranormal beliefs[87] and in people who report mystical experiences.[88] It also seems to be the case that people who are more creative are also more likely to show a similar pattern of brain activation.[89] Some researchers have been quick to point out that this in no way suggests that paranormal, mystical or creative experiences are in any way by themselves a symptom of mental illness, as it is still not clear what makes some such experiences beneficial whilst others lead to the impairment or distress of diagnosable mental pathology. However, people who have profoundly different experiences of reality or hold unusual views or opinions have traditionally held a complex role in society, with some being viewed as kooks, whilst others are lauded as prophets or visionaries.

Psychosis has been traditionally linked to the neurotransmitter dopamine. In particular, the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis has been influential and states that psychosis results from an overactivity of dopamine function in the brain, particularly in the mesolimbic pathway. The two major sources of evidence given to support this theory are that dopamine-blocking drugs (i.e. antipsychotics) tend to reduce the intensity of psychotic symptoms, and that drugs which boost dopamine activity (such as amphetamine and cocaine) can trigger psychosis in some people (see amphetamine psychosis).[90] However, increasing evidence in recent times has pointed to a possible dysfunction of the excitory neurotransmitter glutamate, in particular, with the activity of the NMDA receptor. This theory is reinforced by the fact that dissociative NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine, PCP and dextromethorphan/detrorphan (at large overdoses) induce a psychotic state more readily than dopinergic stimulants, even at "normal" recreational doses. The symptoms of dissociative intoxication are also considered to mirror the symptoms of schizophrenia more closely, including negative psychotic symptoms than amphetamine psychosis. Dissociative induced psychosis happens on a more reliable and predictable basis than amphetamine psychosis, which usually only occurs in cases of overdose, prolonged use or with sleep deprivation, which can independently produce psychosis. New antipsychotic drugs which act on glutamate and its receptors are currently undergoing clinical trials. (See glutamate hypothesis of psychosis)

The connection between dopamine and psychosis is generally believed to be complex. While antipsychotic drugs immediately block dopamine receptors, they usually take a week or two to reduce the symptoms of psychosis. Moreover, newer and equally effective antipsychotic drugs actually block slightly less dopamine in the brain than older drugs whilst also affecting serotonin function, suggesting the 'dopamine hypothesis' may be oversimplified.[91] Soyka and colleagues found no evidence of dopaminergic dysfunction in people with alcohol-induced psychosis[92] and Zoldan et al. reported moderately successful use of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, in the treatment of levodopa psychosis in Parkinson's disease patients.[93]

Psychiatrist David Healy has criticised pharmaceutical companies for promoting simplified biological theories of mental illness that seem to imply the primacy of pharmaceutical treatments while ignoring social and developmental factors which are known to be important influences in the aetiology of psychosis.[94]

Some theories regard many psychotic symptoms to be a problem with the perception of ownership of internally generated thoughts and experiences.[95] For example, the experience of hearing voices may arise from internally generated speech that is mislabeled by the psychotic person as coming from an external source.

[edit] Treatment

The treatment of psychosis depends on the cause or diagnosis or diagnoses (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and/ or substance intoxication). The first line treatment for many psychotic disorders is antipsychotic medication (oral or intramuscular injection), and sometimes hospitalisation is needed. There is growing evidence that cognitive behavior therapy[96] and family therapy[97] can be effective in managing psychotic symptoms. When other treatments for psychosis are ineffective, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (aka shock treatment) is sometimes utilized to relieve the underlying symptoms of psychosis due to depression. There is also increasing research suggesting that Animal-Assisted Therapy can contribute to the improvement in general well-being of people with schizophrenia.[98]

[edit] Early intervention in psychosis

Early intervention in psychosis is a relatively new concept based on the observation that identifying and treating someone in the early stages of a psychosis can significantly improve their longer term outcome.[99] This approach advocates the use of an intensive multi-disciplinary approach during what is known as the critical period, where intervention is the most effective, and prevents the long term morbidity associated with chronic psychotic illness.

Newer research into the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy during the early pre-cursory stages of psychosis (also known as the "prodrome" or "at risk mental state") suggests that such input can prevent or delay the onset of psychosis. However further research in this area is needed. [100]

[edit] History

The word psychosis was first used by Ernst von Feuchtersleben in 1845[101] as an alternative to insanity and mania and stems from the Greek ψύχωσις (psychosis), "a giving soul or life to, animating, quickening" and that from ψυχή (psyche), "soul" and the suffix -ωσις (-osis), in this case "abnormal condition"[102][103]. The word was used to distinguish disorders which were thought to be disorders of the mind, as opposed to neurosis, which was thought to stem from a disorder of the nervous system.

The division of the major psychoses into manic depressive illness (now called bipolar disorder) and dementia praecox (now called schizophrenia) was made by Emil Kraepelin, who attempted to create a synthesis of the various mental disorders identified by 19th century psychiatrists, by grouping diseases together based on classification of common symptoms. Kraepelin used the term 'manic depressive insanity' to describe the whole spectrum of mood disorders, in a far wider sense than it is usually used today. In Kraepelin's classification this would include 'unipolar' clinical depression, as well as bipolar disorder and other mood disorders such as cyclothymia. These are characterised by problems with mood control and the psychotic episodes appear associated with disturbances in mood, and patients will often have periods of normal functioning between psychotic episodes even without medication. Schizophrenia is characterized by psychotic episodes which appear to be unrelated to disturbances in mood, and most non-medicated patients will show signs of disturbance between psychotic episodes.

During the 1960s and 1970s, psychosis was of particular interest to counterculture critics of mainstream psychiatric practice, who argued that it may simply be another way of constructing reality and is not necessarily a sign of illness. For example, R. D. Laing argued that psychosis is a symbolic way of expressing concerns in situations where such views may be unwelcome or uncomfortable to the recipients. He went on to say that psychosis could be also seen as a transcendental experience with healing and spiritual aspects. Thomas Szasz focused on the social implications of labelling people as psychotic; a label he argues unjustly medicalises different views of reality so such unorthodox people can be controlled by society. Psychoanalysis has a detailed account of psychosis which differs markedly from that of psychiatry. Freud and Lacan outlined their perspective on the structure of psychosis in a number of works.

Since the 1970s, the introduction of a Recovery approach to mental health, which has been driven mainly by people who have experienced psychosis, or whatever name is used to describe their experiences, has led to a greater awareness that mental illness is not a lifelong disability, and that there is an expectation that recovery is possible, and probable with effective support.[citation needed]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

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[edit] Further reading

  • Sims, A. (2002) Symptoms in the mind: An introduction to descriptive psychopathology (3rd edition). Edinburgh: Elsevier Science Ltd. ISBN 0-7020-2627-1

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You are enlightened if... :

Affirmations of the Now

I am a radiant being of Light and Love. I am Divinity in the flesh.
I am free of the past and the future. The moment I live in is Now, with no history affecting my choices in the present.
I am eternal consciousness living inside a lucid dream called life. I am a lucid dreamer, for I am awake. I live a lucid life.
I have unlimited resources of abundance, love and knowledge. I am wealthy on all levels, physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual.
I am a lovable person who is loved by others. I am appreciated by others.
I love others no matter how they act, or what their faults are. Even if I don't want to be around their personality, I love them as the eternal being that they truly are. I overlook the shortcomings of others. I have no judgment.
I love and appreciate myself. I overlook my shortcomings, and love myself anyway.
I am a creative person. I use creativity in everything I do, even for ordinary tasks.
I embrace the ordinariness of life, and make it a special experience in itself, without needing to change anything.
I use my emotions, thoughts and challenges to lead me to deeper places within myself.
I surrender to whatever the powers-that-be (whether it is God, the universe, my higher self, my deeper self) decide to do with me.
As I become more and more aware of myself as eternal consciousness, I become more peaceful and at ease with all that happens in my life. Physical reality reflects this peace back to me.
I release others from all blame that I assign them. They only play roles in my life that help me become more awake and aware of who I really am.
I use all negative experiences as chances to learn, evolve and grow, instead of letting them embitter me. I maintain stillness and peace even as I move through unpleasant experiences.
I am a radiant source of love on the Earth for others, rather than needing others to be a source of love for me. I am the source of love.
I am clear, untouched, and unharmed by all that I have experienced in my life. All traumas of the past were just passing moments that have come and gone, appeared and disappeared, in the arena of consciousness that I am.
I am wise, intelligent, loving consciousness. I am a part of God's consciousness. I realize myself as one with all in the universe, for we are all one being having many dreams.
As I awaken, I make it possible for others around me to awaken. My essence ripples out into the world and awakening within the dream of life is contagious to everyone I meet.
As I act on the opportunities that arise in the moments that come and go, the resources and tools I need become available.
I am gentle and nurturing to myself. I say only kind things to myself. I am my own best friend.
I rest my mind from worry and thoughts, and find peace in the stopping. Having a still mind, even as I go about my daily tasks, is my natural way.
I release inferiority and superiority complexes. I am equal with all people and other sentient beings, no more and no less than any other. I accept this position of equality in myself.
I release the old and invite the new, even if the new has not appeared yet.
I am protected and safe because nothing can really harm me, not even death.
I am mature, wise, and intelligent. Any thoughts I have to the contrary are only illusory fears.
This too shall pass.
I transcend fear by meeting it willingly and looking for what is deeper than the fear. Under the fear, no matter how many layers there are beneath it, I always find my true self, the awake, empty awareness that I am eternally.
When I notice my personality acting up, I forgive myself for "falling asleep," and wake up again and become lucid and present in whatever moment is around me.
Negative manifestations in my health and body are temporary, even if they last a lifetime. I surrender to my physical experiences, even if they are unpleasant.
I love to eat healthy foods, take care of myself, exercise, and have fun doing it!
If old memories rise to the surface, I investigate the emotional content in a balanced way, and move deeper into the emotion and through it, finding my eternal self again, and making peace with the old memory.
I face my shadow willingly, realizing it for the illusion that it is.
I let down all my defenses and strategies, and am willing to become vulnerable and open. Instead of protecting myself, I open myself to whatever is presenting itself in any present moment.
I now remember the enlightenment I was born with, knowing myself as Divinity in the flesh.
I deserve to have positive experiences. I am worthy. If feelings of unworthiness come up, I go deeper and realize them as illusions.
I am humble, even though I know myself as the eternal consciousness of God. I am humble, because no matter how awake I become, I realize that the human condition is a lifelong limitation and I cannot be perfect all the time.
When I crave altered states of mind, I remember that I'm already in a very intense experience called life. I look around at my environment and can find myself in an altered state simply with intention to experience life more vividly.
I am cool, calm, charismatic and magnetic simply because I am being myself with no pretenses.
I release the idea that dark energies are harming me or holding me back, ill-wishers putting spells on me, or psychically attacking me in some way or another. I recognize this thoughtform as fear. I let go of these things as the illusions that they are. They are only real and have the power to effect me if I believe in them. No harm and no fear.
I am patient with others and with myself.
I have defined my personal boundaries on what I will and will not accept from others, and I lovingly, calmly, and respectfully enforce them without aggression.
When challenged to wait, I learn how to wait and make good use of the time! If no messages or directions about what to do next come up, I am peaceful as I wait for the right timing of things.
When I think of achieving a connection with my higher self, or higher spirits, I realize that it is not a matter of higher, but rather of moving deeper within. My higher self is actually my deeper self. This is where God is.
I am an objective person. I live in a state of non-judgment toward others, the world or myself. When I find judgment within myself, I re-adjust myself until a state of non-judgment becomes habitual.
I remember myself as the master that I am, the master I have always been. I have mastery over my life by how still I can keep my mind and how alert I am in the now.
I accept the present state of development in my personality, knowing that my personality is never going to be perfected. That which is already perfect is deeper than the personality.
The universe is within me, not outside of me. I remind myself of that often.
I forgive myself for the past. I let go with love and understanding by remembering I am much more than moments that have passed. I am objective about my prior transgressions against others, and objective about their transgressions against me. I realize them for the learning opportunities that they are.
I use my power lovingly if I have influence over others.
I allow others to exercise their free will, even if I see a better way or wish they would not make the choices they make.
I view all of reality from the eyes of eternal self. By doing this nothing is as ordinary, terrible, or unpleasant as it seems.
There are deeper meanings under all events in life that I may never understand. I accept these events and experiences even though I don't understand why they are happening.
I help the world by keeping my mind still, not indulging in emotions that cycle endlessly, and going deeper into the consciousness that I am. As I become more peaceful, I contribute to peace in the world.
I am safe in the world, because I am not of the world. I survive long after the world is gone.
I am free of negative karma. I live under the law of grace and start anew with a clean slate.
I release myself from victim roles. I am free, and always have been. Experiences that made me feel like a victim were only experiences that appeared and disappeared in the arena of consciousness that I am.
I am in charge of my own perspective and I have the power to change it, even though I may not have the power to change external events.
I use the emotions of anger or frustration to go deeper into myself. I use them as propelling mechanisms that drive me deeper into self inquiry and finding out who I really am.
I express anger in constructive ways rather than destructive ways. I converse with others I am angry with in a calm way, rather than aggressively, and if I cannot speak with them in person, I release the anger without turning it inward on myself.
I allow miracles to happen in my life. Miracles are possible all the time, but it is I who must allow them to happen to me.
I release my fear about death. If I am eternal, then death is no more than waking up from a dream.
I enjoy my life, no matter how long or short it might be. I live each day as if it were my last.
I hold the gratitude attitude fully. Each day I find five (or more) things to be grateful for.
I am a living, walking piece of Godself.
I am a wonderful example to others, especially in how I handle unpleasant situations.
I am free, even in the midst of limitation within the illusions of life.
I draw to myself others of like mind. I join forces with others who are awakening and wish to help others awaken as well, thus creating more peace in that world. I am part of a united group. Our power is great when we join together.
I create in myself and around me the possibility for an enlightened government to manifest. I create a space in physical reality for an enlightened government to appear, rather than feeling doomed to live under the tyranny of corruption. I lend my energy to those who are in positions in the government to change things.
I transmute darkness within myself, thus transmuting darkness in the world.
I am patient as I wait for love to be fully anchored on the Earth. I am that anchor, and as I become more efficient at being the Source of love, so do others.
I create subtle shifts in the consciousness of all that I meet. I give darshan secretly to others, even while going about my daily tasks. I influence others in positive ways.
I am doing exactly what I need to be doing at this time.
I am innocent and pure, just like a new born baby, Even though I have experienced many things in life, I am still just as innocent, fresh and new as I was the day I was born.
I allow my inner child a chance to play every day, even if only for a little bit.
I am learning to be a guardian angel when around others who need help and children who need guidance.
When I forget how to laugh, I seek the company of children or funny people. If none are around, I laugh out loud by myself.
I now heal my psychological or emotional illness by realizing the truth of who I am. I am eternal and only here for a short time wearing this particular lifetime for a little while. It is not who I really am.
I am an inspiration to others who want to be whole again.
I am now enlightened. Enlightenment means "to be in knowledge of," and I am privy to the knowledge that I cannot die.
I reach my fullest potential in this lifetime.
I boldly face the new challenges in life that awakening and becoming aware of who I really am brings.
When I encounter dark-natured people, I react with love, compassion, respect and understanding, seeing them as my own self.
I meet my fear, pain or other emotions I tend to escape. I thank the people or events that brought them up.
Everyone is Buddha sent to teach me. The teacher is everywhere. Life is the guru.
I consider all people my own self-- my equals-- even if they are acting poorly.
My discernment is excellent. I realize the difference between judgment and discernment. Judgment has emotional overtones, and discernment does not. I use discernment to determine what people, situations and events I want to surround myself with.
I honor all paths, religions, and belief systems-- even if I do not subscribe to them myself. I realize that as many people in the world there are, that is the number of paths to God there are.
I have pleasant encounters with others. If someone acts unpleasantly, I find a way to stay at peace in the situation I turn it around and find a pleasant outcome.
In the face of belligerence, I am calm and still, completely awake and alert, but not moving.
I am God. God is me. Others are God. All that happens is something that is happening inside God.
I end the battles within myself. I accept all parts of myself and others.
When I want to know more about God, I study myself. I am the vehicle for God's experience inside this creation.
If I fight with another, I am really fighting with myself because we are both God.
I am constantly aware of God in all beings and all physical matter. I recognize God in others, regardless of how they are acting.
I look at the big picture every day, and put my own life and concerns in perspective with the big picture. I access the big picture with ease, and by doing this I realize that things I thought were so important become small.
The world is my playground. I am at home everywhere I go.
I make room for the deeper self to hold more stage time in the forefront of my life, rather than just a place I go in my meditations. I make life itself a meditation.
Self hate is an illusion. Hate of others is also an illusion. I go deeper than illusion and find the truth of who I really am. Hate disappears in this, even self hate.
I trust my inner wisdom. I trust the information I get form my deeper resources and intuition.
I am willing to ask for help. I recognize when I need help. By asking others for help and being willing to receive, I provide them with a chance to give.
When others invalidate my experience, I release them to their choice and remain steadfast to myself. I release the need for others to validate or believe my experience. I find validation within myself.
I know immediately when I fall back to sleep and lose my centeredness. I regain my sense of balance right away.
In re-parenting myself, I teach myself well in the art of loving self and others.
I let go of the need for approval or recognition from others.
I have the right to be here. I belong. I am allowed to take up space.
I attract to myself people who love me, care about me and treat me with respect.
I am valuable. So are the things I do for myself and others.
When others project on me, I am free to reject or accept it. I also have the wisdom to know when others are just projecting on me or if they are pointing out a fault in my personality that I really have.
I am my own guru, teacher and healer. Others may show up in my life as teachers and gurus, but it is I who attracted them into my life. I do not place my power in the teachers, for they too are only playing roles in my life. I am made out of the same substance that even the most enlightened being is made of.
If I have to express negative emotions, I do it only because I desire a positive solution.
I am a wealth of creativity and expression of the Divine.
I am very blessed and lucky, even if I don not have a lot of material wealth. I have gratitude and appreciation for what I have and let go of coveting what others have.
Even if I am still surrounded by the old and outdated things I generated in my life, I vibrate with the new that is coming in before it appears.
I am forever a student and a master at the same time. Paradox can exist within me peacefully.
I accept and value myself, even in my "unrealized" state.
I now turn my past into light which I use to enrich my future.
I have all the answers to the questions I ask. If I quiet my mind and emotions, the answers appear.
My true talents and potentials become evident as I grow spiritually.
I am grateful for all things in my life, even the small things. I know the true lack in other parts of the world and realize that I am among the very fortunate.
Everyone is my soul-mate. It is all one being having many lives, therefore all people are my soul-mates. We all share the same soul ultimately.
Compassion is the healing salve for all suffering. An open heart changes the world.
I am living in a friendly universe.
The present moment is always here.
Life is a precious gift. I let go of resentment about being incarnated here. I recommit to truly being alive, and seeing my life as the good thing it is.
I observe my negative addictions and engage in positive opposites instead.
My creativity is in everything I do. My life is a creative act.
I always know what the right thing to do is in every moment.
My spiritual path is the fastest route to a happier life. I stay focused on my most important mission, which is becoming awake and enlightened while in the human form.
When my faults are brought to my attention, I pay attention and learn.
I accept loss. I let go gracefully.
I take responsibility for everything I create in my life.
No one is to blame, not even myself.
I accept life as my teacher. Life is my guru and everything in it acts as a teacher to me.

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